Return to Sports Injury Conditions Page


[1] [1] Owens BD. Return to Play Following Musculoskeletal Injury, An Issue of Clinics in Sports Medicine, E-Book. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2016.

[2] Reeves KD, Fullerton BD, Topol G. Evidence-based regenerative injection therapy (prolotherapy) in sports medicine. In The Sports Medicine Resource Manual (pp. 611–619). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders (Elsevier), 2008.

[3] Rompe JD, Nafe B, Furia JP, Maffulli N. Eccentric loading shock-wave treatment, or a wait-and-see policy for tendinopathy of the main body of tendo achillis: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 35(3): 374–383.

[4] Bernuzzi G, Petraglia F, Pedrini MF, De Filippo M, Pogliacomi F, Verdano MA, Costantino C. Use of platelet-rich plasma in the care of sports injuries: Our experience with ultrasound-guided injection. Blood Transfusion. 2014 Jan; 12(Suppl 1): s229.

[5] Paoloni JA, Orchard JW. 1. The use of therapeutic medications for soft-tissue injuries in sports medicine. Medical Journal of Australia. 2005 Oct 3; 183(7): 384.

[6] McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Harvey WF, Price LL, Driban JB, Zhang M, Ward RJ. Effect of intra-articular triamcinolone vs saline on knee cartilage volume and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2017; 317(19): 1967–1975.

[7] Soliman DMI. Advantages of dextrose, platelet rich plasma and stem cells over the traditional conventional methods in treatment of sports injuries and joint osteoarthritis. Journal of Sports Science. 2017; 5: 113–118.

[8] Topol GA, Reeves KD, Hassanein K. Efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy in elite male kicking-sport athletes with chronic groin pain. Archives Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2005; 86(4): 697–702.

[9] Seven MM, Ersen O, Akpancar S, Ozkan H, Turkkan S, Yıldız Y, Koca K. Effectiveness of prolotherapy in the treatment of chronic rotator cuff lesions. Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research. 2017; 103(3): 427–433.

[10] Maxwell NJ, Ryan MB, Taunton JE, Gillies JH, Wong AD. Sonographically guided intratendinous injection of hyperosmolar dextrose to treat chronic tendinosis of the Achilles tendon: a pilot study. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007; 189(4): W215–W220.

[11] Topol GA, Reeves KD. Regenerative injection of elite athletes with career-altering chronic groin pain who fail conservative treatment: A consecutive case series. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2008; 87(11): 890–902.

[12] Khan SA, Kumar A, Varshney MK, Trikha V, Yadav CS. Dextrose prolotherapy for recalcitrant coccydynia. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery. 2008; 16(1): 27–29.

[13] Alderman DD. Prolotherapy for golfer’s elbow and pain. Practical Pain Management. June 2008. 8(5): 56–64

[14] Hauser RA, Hauser MA. Prolo Your Sports Injuries Away. Oak Park, Illinois: Beulah Land Press, 2001.

[15] Orthobiologics: What do Athletes Need to Know about PRP? Education, Science, Spirit of Sport. USADA website, May 2, 2017 [cited 2022 March 20]

[16] Hildreth, Cade. 40 Pro Athletes Who Have Had Stem Cell Treatments, published January 7, 2022 online [cited 2022 March 20]; Zanon G, Combi A, Bargagliotti M. The use of PRP in athletes with muscular lesions. In Bio-Orthopaedics: A New Approach (239-245). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2017.

[17] Randelli PS. Fossati C, Menon A, Ragone V, D’Ambrosi R, Cabitza P, De Girolamo L. Use of PRP in sports medicine 56. Arthroscopy and Sport Injuries: Applications in High-level Athletes. 2016: 439; Hernandez D. Several Dodgers have used platelet rich plasma. LA Times. 2013 Mar 13 [cited 2022 March 20]; Zanon G, Combi F, Combi A, Perticarini L, Sammarchi L, Benazzo F. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of acute hamstring injuries in professional football players. Joints. 2016 Jan–Mar; 4(1): 17–12.

[18] Dines JS, Williams PN, El Attrache N, Conte S, Tomczyk T, Osbahr DC, Dines DM, Bradley J, Ahmad CS. Platelet-rich plasma can be used to successfully treat elbow ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency in high-level throwers. American Journal of Orthopedics. 2016; 45(5): 296–300.

[19] Laver L, Carmont MR, McConkey MO, Palmanovich E, Yaacobi E, Mann G, Nyska M, Kots E, Mei-Dan O. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a treatment for high ankle sprain in elite athletes: A randomized control trial. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2015 Nov 1; 23(11): 3383–3392.

[20] Bernuzzi G, Petraglia F, Pedrini MF, De Filippo M, Pogliacomi F, Verdano MA, Costantino C. Use of platelet-rich plasma in the care of sports injuries: Our experience with ultrasound-guided injection. Blood Transfusion. 2014; 12(1): s229.

[21] Sanli I, Morgan B, van Tilborg F, Funk L, Gosens T. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of refractory distal biceps Tendinitis: Long-term results of a prospective multicenter cohort study. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2016; 24(7): 2308–2312.

[22] Dragoo JL. Wasterlain AS, Braun HJ, Nead KT. Platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for patellar tendinopathy: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014; 42(3): 610–618.

[23] Pearl J. Professional Athletes and Platelet Rich Plasma Injections. 2015 Jun [cited 2022 March 20]; Devine D. Steph Curry had platelet rich plasma treatment on his right knee. Yahoo Sports. 2016 May 4 [cited 2022 March 20]

[24] Matthews KRW, Cuchiara ML. US National Football League athletes seeking unproven stem cell treatments. Stem Cells and Development. 2014; 23(S1): 60–64.

[25] Stem cell treatment: out from the shadows, onto the cutting edge. Sports Illustrated. 2014 Jul 30 [cited 2022 March 20]; Moen MH, Pas HI. Stem cell treatment? Please answer these simple questions first. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017; 51:1512–1513.

[26] Albano JJ, Alexander RW. Autologous fat grafting as a mesenchymal stem cell source and living bioscaffold in a patellar tendon tear. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2011 Jul 1; 21(4): 359–361.

[27] Hernigou P, Lachaniette CH, Delambre J, Zilber S, Duffiet P, Chevallier N, Rouard H. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study. International Orthopaedics. 2014 Sep 1; 38(9): 1811–1818.

Return to Sports Injury Conditions Page